If the person repeats the behavior secondary deviationsociety will impose harsher penalties and eventually stigmatize the violator as a deviant. Every day children learn from parents and peers, and students from teachers.
However, Akers later began to accept the uniqueness of the learning mechanism of imitation from operant or instrumental learning and to discuss it in terms of observational learning or vicarious reinforcement.
A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law.
In this form of commitment an individual is seeking a common interest in society that is accepted and condoned.
More specifically, if a person is exposed to pro-criminal definitions first priorityand these definitions increase in frequency and strength intensity and persist for some time durationthe individual is more likely to demonstrate involvement in criminal and deviant acts.
Burgess and Akers also recognized the importance of additional behavioral components and principles of learning theory, such as classical conditioning, discriminative stimuli, schedules of reinforcement, and other mechanisms. Skinner, yet, more recently, Akers commented on how his theory is more closely aligned with cognitive learning theories such as those associated with Albert Banduraamong others.
In general, a high social consensus exists regarding some forms of deviance, such as murder and rape. Moreover, marijuana has been found to have various positive effects especially for medicinal use, such as treating loss of appetite associated with cancer therapies, and as an effective painkiller without the severe side effects of prescription drugs.
Third is ritualism, by which a person accepts the means but cares little about the goal e. The third element in Hirschi bond to society is involvement. The following will explain the different perspectives of why people engage in delinquent behaviors based on social control theory and social learning theory and why social learning theory is the best explanation of deviant behavior.
Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.
Individuals can learn both positive and negative behavior through vicarious learning. A person who commits an initial deviant act primary deviation will face societal sanctions even though the person may not see himself or herself as a deviant at the time.
For example, laws protecting private property benefit the rich and their extensive wealth more than they do the working class, who may not have any property.
Control Theory Control theory argues that conformity results from social controls placed on the individual by society. Constructionists also make three assumptions regarding the nature of deviance. Differential association varies in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.
Of coarse this would include any hacking that results in crime, and especially theft and fraud.
Combined with higher expectations of success, this may cause feelings of relative deprivation and a stronger deviant motivation.
Constructionist Perspectives This more recent perspective, which emerged in the s, sees deviant behavior as a social construct, determined by how society reacts to certain behaviors, which in and of themselves are not intrinsically bad or good, such as getting a tattoo.
If a child sees another child acting as a bully, vandalizing property, or smoking, he or she might try it because other children think it is cool. People who do not conform to societies norms are often seen as delinquents or criminals. What distinguishes these types of deviance from others is that the perpetrators often do not see themselves as committing crimes.
Essay The Theory Of Crime And Deviance. the society (Brym and Lie ). Crime and deviance are social constructions of society; therefore, the act of theft is considered deviant because humankind made it. The theory of differential association is a learning theory that focuses on the processes by which individuals come to commit deviant or criminal acts.
According to the theory, created by Edwin H. Sutherland, criminal behavior is learned through interactions with other people. - Social Process Theory Social Process and Crime In the social process theory, three areas are covered. The three are social learning theory, social control theory, and social reaction theory.
The definition of the social learning theory is People learn through observing. Deviance Essay. Deviance Essay. Edwin Sutherland’s social learning theory, and control theory, exemplified by Hirschi’s social bond and self-control theory. This more recent perspective, which emerged in the s, sees deviant behavior as a social construct, determined by how society reacts to certain behaviors, which in and of.
Issues Of Deviance And Social Control Sociology Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Deviant behavior can happen intentionally or unintentionally, for example, one might unintentionally violate a dress-code, or a couple may intentionally engage in bizarre sexual activities, or one may commit murder.
Conflict theory mainly defines. According to The Social Learning Theory (Bandura, ), one person can learn simply by observing the behavior of another person (DeLamater,p. 10). The family is the major link to socialization in one’s environment (Four Categories of Family Functions that Seem to Promote Delinquent Behavior, p.
1).Deviant behavior the social learning theory essay